Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Alcohol the Most Lethal Drug Essay - 1426 Words

Alcohol is the most lethal drug causing injuries, health problems and even deaths to people worldwide. Most people think that because cocaine, heroine and bang are not legalized then they are the most dangerous drugs but this is untrue. Alcohol is the only drug which can cause sudden death to the user in relation to its effects. Taking an example, people drinking in a bar are more likely to engage in a fight and eventually harm one another while somebody using cocaine will be at lower risk of engaging in physical fights with the colleagues. The incidences related to alcohol happen unknowingly only for the victim to regret the actions later when someone gets sober. The ability of a drug to be termed as harmful falls under the following†¦show more content†¦The rate of drug use for alcohol records high as compared to other drugs like the heroine and the cocaine because alcohol drinking is seen as a social business as people come together to share a drink as they discuss their matters. Drinking with others also tempts someone to take more due to the influence or to please the friends. A study conducted in South-west Spain showed that alcohol caused a death rate of 76% which recorded the highest compared to the other drugs like the cocaine and heroin. A combination of alcohol with cocaine or heroin causes the greatest harms to the individual as when heroine or cocaine is taken singly. Therefore, this toxic lethal combination is very dangerous and leads to a lot of harm to the victims due to double body stimulation. Drugs are dangerous and associated with crimes, moreover the link between the use of alcohol and illicit drugs are very strong. The drug use rates higher for the young alcohol users between the ages of 16-24 years who use the combination of alcohol and other dangerous drugs like cocaine, marijuana and heroin (Home Affairs Committee, 2009). Alcohol misuse causes a lot of pain to the victims and others associated with them due to emotional, financial and social damages caused by the drug. Some effects like the personal health problems causes harm to the individual but there are other effects like driving while drunk and home violence affectingShow MoreRelatedMarijuana Should Not Be Considered as a Lethal Drug973 Words   |  4 PagesMarijuana Should Not be Considered As a Lethal Drug In out society drugs are considered to be addictive and lethal. People tend to abuse drugs regardless of their side effects. In many cases government agencies regulate their use. Also there are drugs that are illegal to use, produce and sale. One of those illegal drugs is marijuana. For thousands of years, marijuana has been used to treat a wide variety of sickness. It became illegal in 1937 under The Marijuana Stamp Tax Act. This act prohibitsRead MorePsychoactive Drugs : The Single Convention On Narcotic Drugs1587 Words   |  7 PagesSingle Convention on Narcotic Drugs, where it was noted that the problem requires urgent and priority, and in 1984 in the Declaration on the fight against drug trafficking and drug abuse the entire conglomerate of problems, ranging from illicit manufacturing and trafficking to abuse, called shameful and disgusting crime. And it can be called a kind of ostrich policy† (The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961). There are four key groups of psychoactive drugs: stimulants, depressants, opioidsRead MoreAlcoholism as a Social Problem792 Words   |  4 PagesLife? What You Should Know About Alcohol Poisoning By United Behavioral Health.  © 2002. All rights reserved. Last reviewed: December 2004. The prevalence of binge drinking among college students has remained the same between 1994-2002 (44%). Each year 1400 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die from alcohol-related unintentional injuries. 2.6 million young people do not know that a person can die from an overdose of alcohol. Each year approximately 50 collegeRead MoreAddiction : A Familiar Term For Most Of The World1603 Words   |  7 PagesBordner April 26, 2015 Addiction Addiction is a familiar term for most of the world. By its simplest definition, addiction is habitual drug use that causes negative effects on the user’s health and social life despite efforts to stop using (Pinel, J.P. 2013). Drugs have been a part of human society for thousands of years. The quest to alter one’s consciousness is not a new one. Millions of people worldwide suffer from various forms of drug addiction. Yet for such a common affliction, little is understoodRead MoreDepressants Their Effects1002 Words   |  5 Pagesbecoming more and more dependant on drugs, in particular, depressants. By definition, a depressant is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. There are many different types of depressants ranging from sleeping medications to laughing gas, and of course the most common, alcohol. Like all medications, there are the legal and illegal types. Heroin, marijuana, and GHB which is commonly used as a date rape drug, are among the illegal depressants. Read MoreLegalizing Marijuana: Does Society Really Need Another Way to Get High?1563 Words   |  7 Pagesso than any number of other drugs that are currently legal. Marijuana, he argues, should be categorized somewhere between alcohol and tobacco on the one hand, and caffeine on the other. As evidence, he first points out that whereas alcohol and tobacco kill hundreds of thousands of people a year, there is no such thing as a lethal overdose of marijuana. While this is certainly true, it is also the case that, strictly speaking, there is no such thing as a lethal overdose of tobacco. To theRead MoreEssay about Alcohol: A Double Edge Sword1043 Words   |  5 PagesAlcohol is historically one of the oldest known drugs to mankind. It is ingested orally and comes in many varieties. It is attractively packaged in alluring bottles and cans; which can seduce the unsuspecting individual and lead to a life of unrelenting misery, imbued with a potentially ruinous outcome. Taken in moderation; however, alcohol can also be used to prevent disease processes and promote health. This particular drug is both legal and is promoted widely throughout the planet. I chose thisRead MoreWhat is Emergency Psychiatry?1345 Words   |  5 Pagesoften faced with the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms of sudden or presumed recent onset. These symptoms can be subdivided into the following types: 1. Agitation and violent behavior, with or without signs of alcohol or other intoxication 2. Depression with suicidal ideation 3. Acute psychotic reactions like thought disorder, paranoid ideation, and/or hallucinations and marked fear or anger 4. Delirium presenting with disorientation and confusion 5. Severe anxietyRead More The Argumentr Regardingf The Decriminalization Of Cannabis Essay1705 Words   |  7 Pagesnbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The majority of Americans choose the same issues as the most threatening to the nation. Invariably among these one will see â€Å"drugs† as a major concern of most Americans. There is speculation that this is due to a perceived association between drugs and crime (Inciardi 1). A good deal of the argument over government policy towards drugs centers on the least unhealthy and most socially accepted of the illegal drugs, marijuana. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Marijuana, scientifically knownRead MoreWhy Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay example1689 Words   |  7 Pagesshould be legalized Marijuana is a public name for an illegal substance (drug) produced from the Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plant. It is also called weed, ganja, grass, kaya and pot. The drug has many chemical compounds and in particular, it has THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which is responsible for changing mind functions leading to alternations of cognition, mood, behavior, perception and consciousness. â€Å"It is the most widely used illicit substance in the world† (World, 2010, p. 198). Its usage

The Patriot Act And Homeland Security Act Of 2002

ABSTRACT In the aftermath of September 11, 2001teerrorist attacks, Congress and President Busch drafted, passed and enacted a number of laws that were focused on improving the nation’s security form terrorist attack and upgrading its ability to search for, identify, and eliminate terrorist threats at homes and international. Two of the most important and far reaching laws to come from the political and legislative action for the fall were the Uniting and Strengthening Americas by Providing Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001(USA Patriot Act) and the Homeland Security Act of 2002. While the USA Patriot Act and Homeland Security Act of 2002 have formed the backbone of terrorism laws in the United States, they are not without their problems, especially in terms of how far they infringe upon the right, freedom, and liberties of the public. As its full name suggests, the purpose to the USA Patriot Act is to provide federal , state, and local authorities with the means to find, monitor, target, and eliminate terrorists before, during or after they plan to take action. In one of the shortest amount of time to pass a law, from proposal to enactment, the USA Patriot Act was signed into law on October 26, 2001; a little over a month after the September attacks. Under the USA Patriot Act â€Å"means† refers to the full spectrum of tools, procedures, and authorities that government official thought would be necessary to protect the nation fromShow MoreRelatedThe Transportation Security Administration ( Fema )1540 Words   |  7 Pages This report below is a concerning the overall DHS program prioritization which will address the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) which is a directorate under the DHS and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) which become part of the Emergency Preparedn ess and Response Directorate of DHS. This report could have not been prepared without gathering background information concerning the following area hazard/threats, hazard identification and risk analysis, terroristRead MoreHomeland Security1093 Words   |  5 PagesCity. The United States of America has not worried much about self-defense or in this case homeland security. Due to the actions on September 11th homeland security has been the main goal of many politicians and voters. Homeland security builds coalitions and partnerships, protects civil rights and civil liberties, and develops human capital. History The foundations and principles of homeland security are rooted deeply in American history. The preamble of the Constitution, as written by GovernorRead MoreTerrorism : A Global Issue Essay1749 Words   |  7 Pagesgoodbye, the thought of losing them, or our lives to acts of terrorism, is typically not one to cross our minds. On September 11, 2001, this mere thought became the reality for many families. The eleventh of September will forever be remembered as the date a terrorist organization, known as al-Qaeda, attacked the United States killing thousands of innocent people. The al-Qaeda organization have exposed vulnerabilities in the United States’ homeland security. Many have questioned how could this happen toRead MoreThe For The Commercial Facilities Sector863 Words   |  4 Pagesoutdoor events security. On April 15, 2013, at 2:50pm, two pressure cooker bombs detonated along the Boston arathon path (Gaber, L. 2015). Three people died and more than 100 people were injured (Gaber, L. 2015). The purpose of this bomb was to maximize casualties and instill fear with in the American culture. Authorities pursued the culprits (Gaber, L. 2015). One suspect was shot during the pursue and the other lived to stand trial (Graber, L. 2015). Public events are challenging to security professionalsRead MoreThe Impact of September 11, 2001 Essay1221 Words   |  5 Pagescollapsing towers, including cancers and lung disease from inhaling toxic smoke and dust. According to the stages of crises, the first stage is detection; detection focuses on the warning signs for unfortunate events and occurrences. On September 5, 2002, (Press) The Associated Press published a timeline with events leading to September 11. On February 26, 1993, a bomb exploded in the World Trade Center Garage, killing 6 and wounding 1,000. Afterward, Islamic extremist received convictions. Over 5Read More9/11 and the Ongoing Threat of Terrorism829 Words   |  3 PagesAfghanistan to depose the Taliban region (who had harbored al-Qaeda), enacted the US Patriot Act, and formulated a policy to rid the Middle East of terrorist or terror-sponsored States. After the 9/11 attacks, U.S. security policy received myopic scrutiny and there were a number of changes made so that America could anticipate and prevent acts of terrorism. A new Cabinet Level Department was formed, Homeland Security, and on September 14, 2001, Congress authorized use of military force against any individu alRead MoreThe Patriot Act: An Integral Part of the Fight Against Terrorism1206 Words   |  5 PagesObstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica), more commonly known as the Patriot Act, was their response. The Patriot Act gives more powers to law enforcement agencies for investigating and abating terrorist attacks (Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica). The Patriot Act is essential in protecting America from terrorist threats because it provides greater authority for law enforcement agencies, protects the people of the United States, and prevents terrorist attacks. The Patriot Act is important becauseRead MoreThe Usa Patriot Act And The Homeland Security Act1663 Words   |  7 PagesObstruct Terrorist Act (also known as the USA PATRIOT Act) and the Homeland Security Act. Many individual feel that these two policies have infringed the rights of the American people, while others believe that these infringements are a necessity to ensure the safety of the people. This paper will explore if in fact these two policies are unreasonably and unjustly infringing on the rights of the American People, and how it effect the social justice system in America The USA PATRIOT Act was signed intoRead MoreAftermath of 9/11; Congress Acts Essay1024 Words   |  5 Pagessuch as New York and Washington, D.C. This event struck fear in the American people as this was the largest event that caused the highest lost of lives from a foreign attack on the country. Following the event, the national government was forced to act quickly. The incumbent president at the time, George W. Bush, was left with a difficult task on how to deal with this threat and possible future threats. He worked with Congress to come up with multiple measures they could implement to prevent futureRead More9/11 Reflection Essay1118 Words   |  5 PagesOn September 11, 2001 terrorists apprehended 4 airplanes and committed the most heinous act in American history. They flew two planes into the world trade center, one into the Pentagon, and one crashed in a field in Pennsylvania crash killing more than three thousand American citizens. Since 9 /11many things have changed in A merica in relation to our national security. One of the major changes that have effected most people is in the airports. There are several new procedures one must go through

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Constructs Of Teacher Leadership - 957 Words

In their text, Liberman and Miller (2004) addressed the constructs of teacher leadership in three themes from prior research: individual teacher leader roles and organizational realities, learning in practice, and teacher leadership and reshaping school culture. Some of the research studies corresponded with many of my experiences as an emerging music teacher and leader at a tough school placement. In the cultivation of teacher leadership roles, it is important that a teacher is able to build trust and rapport among administration and fellow colleagues, making organizational diagnosis, using using resources effectively, and ultimately have support to alter school culture for the better and to help establish teacher identity (Miles, Saxl, Liberman, 1988; Smylie Denny, 1990; Wasley, 1991). In my first two years, I felt very confident in my abilities to develop my skills by way of the veteran teachers at my school who led by example through classroom management skills and showing me b etter ways to make my lessons more relevant to my students. I remember my mentor teacher pulling me aside and stating that I must expose my students to music that wasn t always written by dead people; start with what they know and go from there! When I started making such changes in my instructional approaches, it helped establish connections and collaborations with my fellow teachers and invested students; thus influencing aspects of my leadership style. Much of which echoed Miller andShow MoreRelatedTeaching Public Middle School Music1555 Words   |  7 Pagesproblems that stem from establishing teacher leadership. Granted, I can go forever and a day about what I observed and the leadership skills I cultivated while teaching public middle school music. However, the chance to view some of the scenarios and transformative events as explained the various texts, articles, and other resources has allowed for different points of relevancies and epiphanies during the course. Specificall y, aspects of my views on the constructs of school reform, the promotion ofRead MoreLeadership Characteristics Of High Performing Schools830 Words   |  4 PagesDistributed Leadership Clearly, administrators and teachers must work as a team for substantive changes in teaching and learning to occur. One theoretical construct that supports the sharing of leadership constructs among all school stakeholders is the idea of distributed leadership (Spillane, 2006). Spillane, Halverson, and Diamond (2001) in their research funded by the National Science Foundation to determine the leadership characteristics of high-performing schools, discovered that the mostRead MorePersonal Practical Theory ( Ppt ) Guidelines / Expectations997 Words   |  4 Pagesis the one who makes teachers become better at what they do. Teachers feel the necessity to learn more to meet the needs of students. When teachers are able to make a positive impact on students’ lives, making them better learners, it leaves a feeling that it is worth being a teacher despite the daily difficulties presented by he career. The teacher Teachers are the ones who help brighten the future of students and consequently of a nation. Teachers are born not made. Teachers are second parentsRead MoreAnalysis Of Swain County High School Essay784 Words   |  4 Pageshas a wealth of community support. The system uses local parent and teacher surveys to provide feedback as well as participating in the 2012 North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey. The North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey (TWCS) provides data to schools and districts about whether schools have the supportive environments necessary for them to be successful with students. The survey consists of eight constructs and should be used by schools in positive ways to help develop schoolRead MoreLeadership, Trustworthiness and Ethical Stewardship Essay1183 Words   |  5 PagesWithout an established trust relationship a leader is unable to be effective. The problem to be investigated is the value of trustworthiness and ethical stewardship in the construct of the organizational leadership model. This paper shall explore the co-functions of trust and ethical stewardship and its impact on leadership effectiveness. â€Æ' Introduction In 2012, there is very little allegiance or loyalty among organizational members. This is partly due to the recent increaseRead MoreTeachers and Students -Roles and Relationships961 Words   |  4 PagesThe student teacher establishes a routine that students understand and respect. Activities reflect careful thought, take into account student developmental levels, learning styles and diversity, and create situations in which students construct knowledge. The student teacher exhibits respect and consideration toward colleagues, particularly in team situations, supports colleagues work and contributes an equal share to team efforts, The student teacher encourages and elicits interaction with parentsRead MoreWhy Is The Subject Leader? A Role For Every School Or Institution?831 Words   |  4 Pagescrucial role for every school or institution. The Teacher Training Agency (TTA, 1996, P. 4) illustrate that:’ Evidence from OFSTED inspections and other sources has shown that pupil achievement is higher when the role of the subject leader is clearly identified and effectively implemented.’ Considering the structural aspects, Morris and Dennison (1982, p. 40) suggest the role of the subject leader should be following: 1. A professional role as a teacher in the classroom. 2. An organizational role asRead MoreMy Personal Practice Theories And Beliefs About The Learner, The Teacher, And The Subject Matter915 Words   |  4 PagesTherefore, teachers need to reflect on their beliefs about education in order to keep motivated and teach effectively. This paper will present my own personal practice theories and beliefs about the learner, the teacher, and the subject matter. As well as to analyzing the importance of the classroom climate, the parents, the school leadership team and the principles of learning. Through my 20 years of experience in the field of education, I can say that learners are the ones who make teachers increaseRead MoreEssay On Practice And Policy Context1021 Words   |  5 Pagescontext and why this aspect is important Despite teacher leadership being a widely referenced concept in education it enjoys little common understanding or standard implementation. Day et al (2000) note that the best way for schools to improve is to give teachers real responsibility. In terms of defining distributed leadership Harris and Lambert (2003) offer that it involves situations where teachers have the opportunity to lead as well as ‘construct’ and find ‘meaning’. It is this construction andRead MoreI Am As A Teacher873 Words   |  4 PagesFinal Project Reflection This whole class has been a journey that I have found myself in the midst of towards a greater discovery of who I am as a teacher and how best to improve as a future teacher. This final project, a class syllabus, has been no exception and indeed has been the culmination of a semester’s worth of reflection. I worked to create a syllabus that is not hypothetical, but an active and live project that I will use to guide student learning in the Spring semester.

The French Revolution Essay - 917 Words

The French Revolution was a period of time from 1789 to 1799 in France where there was political instability. It officially began on the 14th of July, 1789, when the Bastille, which was a symbol of the King’s harsh policies, was stormed. The King, Louis XVI, the Queen, Marie-Antoinette and about 40,000 people were all brutally murdered. But there was also a positive side, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was formally adopted on August 1789 and feudalism was abolished. This essay will address the issues of the three estates system, food shortages and the fiscal crisis. It will also be argued that the most significant cause of the French Revolution was the social inequality that stemmed from the three estates system.†¦show more content†¦The majority were already struggling with the cost of living, and the addition of extra taxes caused it to be near impossible for them to survive financially. This angered the third estate, and provided an incentive for the revolution. Therefore, it is evident that the social inequality that derived from the three estates system was the most significant cause of the French Revolution. Secondly, the food shortages and prices were a highly influential cause of the French Revolution. The third estate had to pay the gabelle, which was extremely expensive (Hetherton). Salt was an essential commodity that was not only used for seasoning but to preserve meats and vegetables for the cold season (Hills). When the peasantry could not afford the gabelle, they starved during the winter. This was especially significant during the winters of 1769, 1776, 1780–1783 and 1788, when there were heavy hailstorms and treacherously cold temperatures (Martin). This meant that there were several crop failures that impacted foods such as corn and grain (Ashwell). As a result, the crop failures caused prices of bread and vegetables to increase 9-fold and 6-fold respectively (Martin). Furthermore, the glacial weather caused several supply routes to freeze and close down. For example, the rivers Yonne and Oise were specifically used for supplying meat, so when they became unavailable t o merchants, the price of meat escalated 10-fold (Martin). This meant that only those who couldShow MoreRelatedThe French Revolution And French Revolutions2006 Words   |  9 PagesAlthough the American and French revolutions both took place in the late 18th century, both fought for independence, and both portrayed patriotism, the revolutions are markedly different in their origins; one which led to the world’s longest lasting democracy and the other to a Napoleonic Dictatorship. Political revolutions in America and France happened because people felt dissatisfied with the way their country was run. In North America they rebelled against rule from a foreign power, they wantedRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1523 Words   |  7 PagesThe French Revolution was a time rife with violence, with many revolutionaries using extreme actions to overturn the French Monarchy and create a government based on equality and justice, rather than tyranny and despotism. This violence reached gruesome and terrible heights throughout the revolution, but was justified by the revolutionaries, who believed that their goals of total equality, the end of tyranny, and the return to a virtuous society, allowed them to use means necessary to attain theseRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1336 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis The French Revolution was such an important time history. Not only was it a massacre with many lives being lost, including that of Queen Marie Antoinette and her husband King Louis XVI, it was also a time of great political turmoil which would turn man against man that being the case of Edmond Burke and Thomas Paine. Edmond Burke a traditionalist who believed the people should be loyal to the king against his former friend, Thomas Paine a free thinker who believed in order for things toRead MoreThe Revolution Of The French Revolution1040 Words   |  5 PagesWhile there were political and social causes of The French Revolution the most important cause was actually economic. A few years before the French’s revolution the French spent approximately 1.3 billion livres, 13 billion dollars, on the American Revolution. This gracious contribution caused trouble at home. The French Revolution was one of the most important events in history. While it changed the social structure in France it also affected many different countries across the world. â€Å"the treeRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1640 Words   |  7 Pages The French Revolution is often seen as one of the most influential and significant events in world history (Voices 9). The surge of rebellion present in those against the old regime, or Ancien Rà ©gime, inspired reformers for generations to come. Nevertheless, the French Revolution would not have occurred without the aid of the Enlightenment Thinkers, or Philosophà ©s. These Philosophà ©s’ ideas sparked the French Revolution. Prior to the French Revolution, France was radically different. It was theRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1321 Words   |  6 Pages The French Revolution The French Revolution was an iconic piece of history that help shape the world. It was a time were great battles occurred. Blood sheds happen almost every day. The streets were red by the blood of bodies that were dragged from being beheaded. The economy was in bad shape. But before all of this the French had a few goals but there was one goal that they all wanted and that was to get rid of the monarchy. This idea did not arrive out of nowhere, the commoners were influenceRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1223 Words   |  5 Pages French Revolution As the Enlightenment began in the middle of the 17th century, people began to use reason rather than stick to tradition. New Enlightenment ideas spread throughout Europe such as ideas on government. Enlightenment thinkers such as Rousenan believed that the best government was one formed with the general consent of the people. Other Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Montesquieu believed in freedom of speech and a separation of power within the government. All of theseRead MoreThe French Revolution And The Revolution1221 Words   |  5 PagesWhen people think of the French Revolution, they immediately think of the country of France and how the Revolution affected it. What most people do not think about however, is how the Revolution affected other countries, specifically the country of England. England was affected positively and negatively by the Revolution in that there was an increase of political involvement, but there was a collapse in the economy due to war declared by France. The French Revolution created a battle of conflictingRead MoreRevolutions And The French Revolution956 Words   |  4 Pages Revolutions are a common occurrence throughout world history. With the amount of revolutions in history, there are those that get lost and those that are the most remembered or well known. One of the well known revolutions is the French Revolution which occurred in the years 1789 to 1799. Before the French Revolution, France was ruled by an absolute monarchy, this meaning that one ruler had the supreme authority and that said authority was not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customsRead MoreThe Revolution Of The French Revolution1636 Words   |  7 Pageswas an old fortress that had served as a royal prison and in which gunpowder was stored. This will be the place where Parisian crowds will lay siege on and use the gunpowder for their weapons, and this will become a great turning point in the French Revolution. 3) The Great Fear was the vast movement that the peasant insurgency of sacking nobles’ castles and burning documents would blend into. This attack was mainly because of seigneurial dues and church tithes that weighed heavily on many peasants

When the Levees Broke Rhetorical Analysis free essay sample

The floodwaters destroyed countless homes and lives along the way. Some estimates of the cost of Katrina were up in the 200 billions but according to Kimberly Amadeo, â€Å"The actual cost of Hurricane Katrinas damage was between $96-$125 billion, with $40-$66 billion in insured losses. † This statistic makes Katrina one of the most expensive natural disasters to ever hit the United States. Money wasn’t the only thing that was lost; the storm killed roughly 1,500 people in Louisiana alone. Floodwaters stayed in New Orleans for weeks leaving many people stranded and fighting for their lives. Post-Katrina New Orleans was a war zone with looting, shootings, robbery, and people desperately needing help from the government. Help was slow to arriving though. People went days and days without food or any kind of help at all. Many people died from all sorts of different causes. Deaths ranged from heat exhaustion in attics to drowning in the street and even in the victims own home. The majority of citizens of New Orleans’ ninth ward feel like the government did not take the right measures in getting help to the victims of the storm and they also feel like the destruction altogether could have been avoided had the levees been built correctly. The story of New Orleans and the failing levees is right up one filmmaker’s alley. Spike Lee is known to make movies that examine race relations and political issues. The story of New Orleans during Katrina touches on both of these subjects immensely. Thus, When the Levees Broke was born. The documentary is a heart-wrenching medley of eyewitness accounts, video news footage, and photographs of the destruction that mix together in a way that shows Lee’s dissatisfaction with what happened during Katrina. Lee was legitimately upset about what happened in New Orleans during Katrina and even toys with the idea that the U. S. government blew up the levees to rid New Orleans of poor blacks. Needless to say, Lee will not hesitate to tell anyone what he believes and is the center of many different controversies in Hollywood. His personality is best described as that of a ticking time bomb. His feelings for the people of the ninth ward coupled with his outspokenness on political affairs and race relations were the driving force behind When The Levees Broke. Lee’s intended audience is really anyone who takes the time to watch his work. He really wanted to get the story out to the public and that is exactly what he did, he let the world see exactly what was happening in New Orleans without any sugar coating. Lee does not hesitate to put a floating, swollen dead body on screen just to let the viewers know the grotesque reality of what happened. Lee uses this documentary to voice his opinion against how the government handled Katrina. He felt that the government did not do what it should have done during this time and he shows his disappointment with the federal government through the movie. Lee conveys a huge array of arguments in this film from the government blowing up the levees to George Bush not caring about black people. Throughout all of these arguments his barebones, central argument is that the federal government did not fulfill its duty to the people of New Orleans during the Katrina catastrophe. Lee conveys this argument in a number of different ways. For instance, he conveys the argument by interviewing a multitude of people that lived through Katrina and has them explain their unrest and disappointment in the government on camera. He also shows photographs of posters and paintings that read things like â€Å"Where’s Fema? † and â€Å"Fuck Bush†. These tactics make it quite easy to see that Lee is upset with the Government. He uses a number of appeals to get his argument across. He mostly uses pathos by using horrific eyewitness accounts and gruesome photographs to stab at the audience’s emotions. The audience cannot help but feel terrible for the people who had to go through this. One of the worst feelings is watching someone cry over their lost home or hear an account of someone who comes home to their dead mother. Lee undoubtedly does a good job of evoking emotion from the audience. Lee interviews a melting pot of people in this documentary. It seems like there is an interviewee from almost every walk of life. In fact HBO explored just how many people Lee interviewed: Lee and his team selected close to 100 people from diverse backgrounds and representing a wide range of opinions to nterview, including Governor Kathleen Blanco; Mayor Ray Nagin; residents Phyllis Montana LeBlanc, Kimberly Polk, Shelton Shakespeare Alexander and Rev. Williams; activists Al Sharpton and Harry Belafonte; CNNs Soledad OBrien; and musicians Wynton Marsalis, Terence Blanchard and Kanye West. This works in his favor and adds to the ethos of the film. Since he is getting the opinions of a number of d ifferent people it shows more of the bigger picture and does not focus on only one person or one group of people. Diversity and unifying people under their disappointment with the government is a key part of his argument. This shows that he is not the only person that feels this way about the government, in fact everyone in the movie feels the same as he does. This can cause some speculation. Spike’s argument is not perfect. There are multiple flaws in the argument that can cause it to be discredited. For one, the opinions of his interviewees are so one-sided that the audience does not see a single glimpse of the other side of the spectrum. Not one person in the film seems satisfied with how the government handled the situation. In a way this discredits Spike Lee’s argument because it seems as if he is only showing you what he wants to show you. He shows you nothing good that the government did or people that are satisfied with how the government helped. The audience only sees the people who are disgruntled by Katrina who just want more and more help. It is hard to believe that there is not a single person in New Orleans who was not satisfied with the help that they received from the government. Mr. Lee simply does not show the satisfied citizens of NOLA. If he had shown these people then his argument would be much stronger. Also, Lee does evoke emotion in the audience but after a while it just becomes too much. After 4 hours of seeing wreckage and dead bodies you almost grow tired of feeling sorry for people. The first time you see a destroyed home or a dead body you want to cry for the victims but after hours and hours of seeing the same thing you become used to seeing it. Spike lee definitely evokes emotion but he should have done so more in moderation so the audience would not tire of feeling sorrow for the victims. Lee’s background as an outspoken critic that really just seems to love controversy also discredits his argument. It is as if Lee could be making this film to just stir up controversy in Hollywood because that is what he seems to love to do. He has had countless run-ins with almost every director in the business from Tarantino to Tyler Perry. He imply loves controversy so why would he not take this story and blow it up and make a huge controversy out of it? It would not be out of character for him to do so. That is why his argument can be somewhat discredited by his background. It is not unlikely that Lee took this story and made it a huge ordeal just to stir up controversy in Washington and against Bush, whom he does not support. The story is really just a perfect opportunity to pin people against Bush. His background, one-sidednes s, and excess of pathos all hurt his argument greatly. When the Levees Broke is a Spike Lee documentary that tells the story of the destruction that Katrina and a failed levee system had on New Orleans, Louisiana. The creator uses the film in an attempt to argue that the federal government did not do its part to help the people of New Orleans after the disaster. However, he fails at arguing that point due to his one-sidedness and his personal background. During the film, interviewees all agree on the consensus that the government did not help out how they should have but no one thinks that they did a good job of helping out. This just shows that Lee is only showing the audience what he wants them to see. If he had shown both sides of this argument and disproved the opposing side his argument would have been much stronger. Also, Lee’s personal identity as one who loves controversy discredits his argument in that it appears to be just another one of his critiques. He has so many critiques of things that this argument really just gets lost in the sea of them all. Works Cited Amadeo, Kimberly. About. com. The New York Times Company. n. d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. HBO. com. n. p. n. d. Web. 12 Mar. 2013.

Is there a light at the end of the tunnel Essay Example For Students

Is there a light at the end of the tunnel Essay Is There a Light at The End of The Tunnel? A Comparative Study Between Religious and Secular Prophecies Upon the Dawning of The New Millennium. People believe that the year 2000 brings worldwide devastation. They are preparing themselves for Y2K, apocalypse, and the second coming of Christ. People are taken in on a huge hype that the year 2000 will be the end of the world for everyone. Some people believe that the pending year 2000 bug will wreak havoc on society and view the event as the end of the world as we currently know it. They expect that vital services will be disrupted and lead to an economic breakdown. Senate members predict that the Y2K bug will affect everyone in someway. They say that major sectors of the economy will be at risk. These sectors are public utilities, telecommunications, transportation, commerce, small business, and national security. They also believe that they will affect importers of oil and coal. Senator Christopher Dodd of Connecticut says that health care is at the worst risk right now. He says that, As much as 80-90% of our doctors offices are not compliant. 64% of hospitals still have seri ous problems with the Y2K issues, (Senate Y2K Report Wendy Griffith). The senate also believes that they will affect Medicare, power companies, banks, and stocks. People now believe that they must remove their money from the banks. This is true, but most of them are waiting until the end of the year to do this. If everyone goes to the bank simultaneously to remove their money, then they will cause an automatic depression. The banks do not have all of the money in the bank at the times that people will want their money. If everyone takes their money out of the banks at the same time, then all the money that is in the government, overseas, and in stocks will be taken away at such a rapid pace that it will cause a depression. There are ways to avoid this problem, but people must begin to prepare for it and stop worrying about it. People are not doing enough to prepare for the problems of Y2K, but they are spending too much time trying to do other things such as, complain about it, try to make money off it, or just dismiss it. Dismissing this problem is impossible if it is going to cause a worldwide shutdown. There are people though that have offered ways to prevent having to face this problem. Some solutions that they offer are survival domes that cost 7000 dollars and will protect you from all of the problems outside the dome. There are glass bubbles that they can purchase to live in that offer the same protection as the dome. Other people offer sensible solutions such as stock up on canned foods, water, generators, gas, and things that are necessary for survival. Web sites offer survival guides to help prepare for the new millennium. Most people are appearing to avoid preparing for the new millennium and in turn they are trying to make money off it. They sell products that will save people from total destruction and offer books, magazine, videos, and guides that will prepare one for the Y2K bug. Everyone is on either the world is going to end band wagon or they are trying to make a million off it. Their are other views on this Y2K problem. Religious people predict that the year 2000 will bring us a time of rebuilding ourselves into a better nation. They believe that God has a plan for us and that if the computers are going to shutdown, then they are shutting down for a reason. God has a solution for everything that we get into and he is always there watching over us and leading us in the right path. Religious people believe that, most religious people believe, the world is going to continue as it was with no problems, while others, such as Jerry Fawell, believe that in the year 2000 we will face Gods wrath. He preached that we will be faced with the coming of a vengeful god that is planning to wreak havoc on a nation of nonbelievers. People have been predicting this since the year 60 and it has never come true. People should not fear this prophecy because God said that we should show no fear. If we are to face Gods wrath, then we should h ave the belief that we believe and that God will take us to heaven. We should we feel no wrath. There have been many predictions from both secularist and religious sides. Both believe that the new millennium will bring devastation and an end to the world. They also both believe that there is a chance that the world may be better due to this problem. The main question of both groups is how is this going to affect them and how are they going to get out of it. Their main problem is that most people go by here say and do not do the research to find out what is really going on. .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .postImageUrl , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:hover , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:visited , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:active { border:0!important; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:active , .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uadf51f3c556891783dec7a928c1b6bac:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Cause of the revolutionary war Essay There have been many predictions that people have made for the new millennium who have been making predictions their whole life. The only problem with this is that these people have usually been wrong. The bibles predictions were always right but no one knows what or when the second coming is so they should not fear that. Religious prophecies that were not in the bible have usually been wrong. There have been preachers that have made predictions many, many times and they were usually wrong. One such person was Preacher William Miller who predicted that the year 1844 would be the year of the second coming but that didnt come true. So, they shouldnt take Jerry Fawells prediction seriously. Neither should be any other. Right now people should begin to put their faith into Christ and not into computers. People have put God on the back burner and made him their second priority. This is not what you can call religious. These are the people who on judgement day will face the wrath of God. W hy we are sitting here worrying about such trivial things such as Y2K, we could be praying and putting our faith into Christ. This is the main solution to all of our problems. Forget all of the predictions of the new millennium and begin to worry about where you are going to be religiously when these problems occur. The question of is there a light at the end of the tunnel is a question that the person can only answer. It all depends on how one looks at it. Secularist believe that the world is going to be hell at the beginning of the new millennium and they doubt that it is going to get any better. Religious people believe that God is on their side and they have no reason not to have a better life next millennium. They believe that secularists are the ones who have to have fear, for they are the ones who do not believe in God so they will face the consequences. I believe that the world as we know it will get better in the years to come. We have always had times where we had problems, but we always came out on top of things. If we put our faith into God and not into computers then we should have no problems concerning the future. People need to stop worrying about Y2K and stop trying to fool people and make money off those who believe that Y2K will cause a problem and start to believe in God. The world will go on and so shall we, if we believe it and pray to God for it. We should not have fear for the new millennium. We can comfort ourselves with the knowledge that the end of the world has been predicted before, many, many times before. So far the doomsday prophets have had a pe rfect score, they have never been right. Just remember that god said, I will supply all your needs, (Phillipians 4:19), Cast all your cares on me, (1 Peter 5:7), I have not given you the spirit of fear, (II Timothy 1:7), and I will never leave you or forsake you, (Hebrews 13:5). That means that God will give us a way to survive, he will take all your stress and problems, he has given you no reason to fear anything, and he will always be there and never leave you since you put your faith in him. So, go in God into the next millennium, it may be the only way to go into it.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Q-Cash a New Era in Banking Essay Example

Q-Cash: a New Era in Banking Essay Q-CASH: A NEW ERA IN BANKING September 1, 2004 Mr. NEHAL MAHTAB Assistant Professor Department of Finance And Banking University of Dhaka Dear Sir, We are very glad to submit you the report on â€Å"Q-cash: A New Era In Banking†. We would like to say that this assignment was very helpful for us to know about the definition of Q-cash, working method of Q-cash card and ATM machine, parts of ATM, online and offline relationship and other important facts about Q- cash system. We have submitted our report to you for your kind review consideration. We made this report with our sincerity and serious effort. We will be honored to provide you any additional information if necessary. Sincerely yours, Abu Naser Sabbir Ahmed Faisal Ibne Shahajat Reaz Hassan Awwal Md. Shariful Alam B. B. A 10th Batch Department Of Finance and Banking University Of Dhaka. Table of contents 1. 0 Introduction: 1. 1 purposes1 1. 2 scopes1 1. 3 limitations1 1. 4 procedures of gathering data and sources1 1. 5 general plan of the report2 2. 0 Q-cash: A New Era In Banking 2. 1 Q-cash card3 2. 1. 1 what is q-cash card 3 . 1. 2 Key feature of card4 2. 1. 3 Facilities of Q-cash card4 2. 1. 4 Difference of q-cash card and other cards5 2. 2 ATM 2. 2. 1 what is ATM5 2. 2. 2 Invention of ATM5 2. 2. 3 Features and parts of ATM6 2. 2. 3. 1 Input device6 2. 2. 3. 2 Output of device6 3. 0 Q-cash: How the system works 3. 1 A brief overview of the Q-cash consortium (consortium, ATM network clients)8 3. 2 About ITC9 3. 3 Network system of q-cash9 3. 3. 1 offline10 3. 3. 2 online10 3. 3. 2. 1 Techniques of the online relationship followed by ITC11 3. 3. 2. Automated clearing house (ACH)11 3. 4 Security12 3. 5 Feature planning13 4. 0 Conclusion:14 Appendix Definition of terms 14 Bibliography15 1. 0 Introduction: 1. 1 Problem and purpose The objective of this study is to have some practical experience about computer application used in business sector. Though we had some textbook knowledge about how the computer application is used in banking sector, but never had any real life practice what so ever. So, to achieve the objective we had some research about the technology of Q-Cash ATM network and the facilities it brought into. We will write a custom essay sample on Q-Cash: a New Era in Banking specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Q-Cash: a New Era in Banking specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Q-Cash: a New Era in Banking specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It will certainly help to improve our knowledge about how the computer technology is used in business. 1. 2 Scope The report will focus on the Q-Cash ATM network that is shared by the ten banks, the ATM machine, the Q-Cash card, how Q-Cash card and ATM machine work together, facilities of Q-Cash card, security system of Q-Cash card etc. the utilities of the system is mainly described under the current Bangladeshi prospective. It has less emphasize on the complicated architecture of the ATM machine. Its prospects and future planning in Bangladesh is also outlined in the report. . 3 Limitations While preparing the report, we faced some problem. The main problem was time constraint. Though our course teacher instructed us to prepare a report couple of months earlier, we could not start preparing because of summer vacation. After that we had the flood problem and some unwanted political problem. That is why we had real trouble in work together and collect data from sources. Another probl em was the data insufficiency. For that we had to use so many sources to get the proper information. 1. 4 Sources and methods of collecting information We have collected our data mostly from journals and Internet. But they were not enough. So, we have visited ITCL (it consultants limited) to observe their system by us and taken some interview of people related to the system. 1. 5 General plan of the report In the following pages, the discussion will give an over all view of Q-Cash ATM network in Bangladesh. Firstly, comes with the name of the ten banks that are using the Q-Cash ATM network, definition of Q-Cash, then the introduction of Q-Cash card, key features of it, facilities of using it and the related discussions about it are given. Then there are some discussions about the ATM machine; features and parts of it are given. Later, the discussions of the system such as how the Q-Cash card and ATM work together, the networking system, online offline relationship are included. It also includes the security features, future prospects of Q-Cash card. 2. 0 Q-cash: A New Era In Banking 2. 1 Q-cash card 2. 1. 1 what is Q-cash card Q-Cash card is a â€Å"Smart Card†, which is a combination of a plastic card having both microprocessor chip and a magnetic stripe. The smartness of this card will ensure that it is capable of working both â€Å"offline† and â€Å"online† thus making it a perfect case for using in Bangladesh where online connectivity cannot be guaranteed due to poor telecommunication. The Q-Cash card is more than just an ATM card. It can be used as a combination of debit and credit facility. More importantly, Q-Cash card contains a microchip that allows storing money as well as transactions and accounting information within transforming the way you do your banking. The Q-Cash card network offers all your banning requirements without ever setting foot in a bank. Its more than just an ATM service for quick withdrawals or account enquiries. With the unique Point of Sale (POS) terminals, situated in shops, restaurants and other service centres around the city, you can use your Q-Cash card to pay for goods and serves by debiting or by credit your account directly. Since your q-cash card can store account information microchip, ATM and POS services can be accessed without the need for online authorisation from your bank. The card can also act as a credit card (if approved by the bank) and can be affiliated with VISA, MASTERCARD etc. What is Smart Card Smart Card is one of the latest additions to the world of information technology. Similar in size to todays plastic payment card, the smart card has a microprocessor or memory chip embedded in it. The chip stores electronic data and programs that are protected by advanced security features. When coupled with a reader, the smart card has the processing power to serve many different applications. As an access-control device, smart cards make personal and business data available only to the appropriate users. Another application provides users with the ability to make a purchase or exchange value. Smart cards provide data portability, security and convenience. There are different types of security mechanisms used in smart cards. Those necessary for a memory-only card are less sophisticated than those for a microprocessor card. Access to the information contained in a smart card is controlled two ways: ? Who can access the information (everybody, the card holder or a specific third party). ? How can the information be accessed (read only, added to, modified or erased). 2. 1. 2 Key feature of the Q-cash Smart card ? It is an ICC (integrated circuit chip). It has a chip of 8 pins. This chip consists of operating system, processor, ROM and RAM . It also has a memory of 16kb. Meets EMV specifications and ISO 9001 Standards. Performs both online and offline transactions. Compatible with Subscriber Identification Module [SIM] like mobile phone. Compatible with Security Access Module (SAM) to help safeguard sensitive customer information and help support multiple smart card schemes. Supports memory/microprocessor smart cards and magnetic stripe cards in the same plastic. EMV Compatibility Over the past few years, there has been tremendous growth in the number of solutions developed for smart cards. To address this growth, three of the leading card associates- Euro Pay, MasterCard and Visa has collaborated to develop and publish EMV specifications for smart card based debit and credit applications. These standards provide numerous benefits for acquire and issuers, including improved security to reduce fraud and lower telecommunications costs. 2. 1. 3 Facilities of Q-cash card Q-Cash card has the facilitates of Credit and Debit transactions all in a single card and also gives the following accesses: ? Cash Deposit ? Debit Transaction ? Cash Withdrawal ? Credit Transaction ? Fund Transfer ? Account Information Customer Account Statement ? Smart Card Loading ? Balance Inquiry ? Online Offline ? Mini Statement ? 24 Hours Banking ? Chequebook Request ? Internet Banking ? Pin Change ? Any Time Anywhere Banking ? Utility Bill Payment 2. 1. 4 Difference of Q-cash card and credit card Q-cash card take funds directly from the money that is in the bank account of the cardholder. For this r eason we don’t have to pay any interest to the bank. With a Q-cash card, dont have to carry cash or checks, and it is very convenient to shop at a variety of places including gas stations, grocery stores, restaurants, and retail stores. They provide instant access to your money and are accepted worldwide. In a credit card, users actually borrow money that is made available to him by a bank or other financial institution. The institution pays the debt to the vendor, and in turn, cardholder has to pay the money back to the bank. By signing up for a credit card, you agree to pay back the money that you borrowed, in addition to any interest drawn on the amount you borrowed. 2. 2 ATM 2. 2. 1 what is an ATM An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is a tool, which allows customers of a bank to perform banking transactions at any time from anywhere. By using a smart card in the machine customers of a bank can withdraw money from their current account (if permitted by the bank from savings account), transfer funds, pay utility bills even take credit from the bank. The most attractive site of this ATM is it gives a user 24 hours banking facility, which is totally hassle free and user friendly. 2. 2. 2 Invention of ATM As is often the case with inventions, many inventors contribute to the history of an invention. In the case of the ATM, Don Wetzel invented the first successful and modern ATM in the USA, however he as not first inventor to create an ATM. In 1939, Luther George Simjian started patenting an earlier and not-so-successful version of an ATM. Don Wetzel was the co-patentee and chief conceptualist of the automated teller machine At the time (1968) Wetzel was the Vice President of Product Planning of a company named Docutel. The other two inventors listed on the patent were Tom Barnes, the chief mechanical engineer and George Chastain, the electrical engineer. It took five million dollars to develop the ATM. The concept of the modern ATM first began in 1968, a working prototype came about in 1969 and Docutel was issued a patent in 1973. The first working ATM was installed in Rockville Center, New York Chemical Bank. The ATM they first created was a cash dispenser only. These were off-line machines; meaning money was not automatically withdrawn from an account. The bank accounts were not connected by a computer network to the ATM. Therefore, banks were at first very exclusive about who they gave ATM privileges to. Giving them only to credit card holders (credit cards were used before ATM cards) with good banking records. Wetzel, Barnes and Chastain developed the first real ATM cards, cards with a magnetic strip and a personal ID number to get cash. ATM cards had to be different from credit cards (then without magnetic strips) so account information could be included. The next version that was created in 1971, which is the ATM we all know today. 2. 2. 3 Features and parts of ATM An ATM contains many parts. ATM can differ from one to another because many companies are producing ATM this days and the technology they use differs. The ATM has mainly 2 input devices and 4 output devices. Descriptions of these two types of devices are as follows. 2. 2. 3. 1 Input device Card reader: The card reader captures the account information stored on the microprocessor chip and magnetic stripe on the ATM/debit or credit card. The host processor uses this information to route the transaction to the cardholder’s bank. Keypad: The keypad lets the cardholder tell the bank what kind of transaction is required (cash withdrawal, balance inquiry, etc. ) and for what amount. In some of the machines the screen can be also used to enter data instead of the keypad. This type of screens is called Touch Screen. Also, the ATM requires the cardholders personal identification number (PIN) for verification. For better security PIN block is sent to the host processor in encrypted form. 2. 2. 3. 2 Output device Display screen: The display screen prompts the cardholder through each step of the transaction process. Leased-line machines commonly use a monochrome or colour CRT (cathode ray tube) display. Dial-up machines commonly use a monochrome or colour LCD. [pic] Receipt printer: The receipt printer provides the cardholder with a paper receipt of the transaction. Cash dispenser: The heart of an ATM is the safe and cash-dispensing mechanism. The entire bottom portion of most small ATMs is a safe that contains the cash. The cash dispenser mechanism has an electric eye that counts each bill as it exits the dispenser. The bill count and all of the information pertaining to a particular transaction is recorded in a journal. Besides the electronic eye that counts each bill, the cash dispensing mechanism also has a sensor that evaluates the thickness and the size of each bill. If two bills are stuck together, then instead of being dispensed to the cardholder they are diverted to a reject bin. The same thing happens with a bill that is excessively worn or torn, or is folded. The number of reject bills is also recorded so that the machine owner can be aware of the quality of bills that are being loaded into the machine. Speaker: The speaker provides the cardholder with auditory feedback when a key is pressed. 3. 0 Q-cash: How the system works 3. 1 A brief overview of the Q-cash consortium To run the Shared ATM Network all over Bangladesh, all the member banks formed a consortium known as Q-Cash consortium. The Q-cash consortium has a total number of ten (10) leading Banks in Bangladesh. These banks together have build up an extensive ATM network in Dhaka, Chittagong Sylhet in first phase. In phase two other regions will be added in the shared ATM Network, 100 150 more ATMs will be installed all over Bangladesh very soon. Q-Cash is a common card for all member banks in the Consortium and ITC is providing all the technical and management supports. The names of the 10 banks are [pic] Currently 18 ATMs are installed in Dhaka and Chittagong. The locations of these ATMs are as follows. |ATM Service Locations | |Dhaka | |Uttara Branch, AB Bank Ltd. Uttara branch, The City Bank Ltd. | |Uttara Branch, IFIC Bank Ltd. |Gulshan Branch, AB Bank Ltd. | |Gulshan Branch, The City bank Ltd. |Mohakhali Branch, AB Bank Ltd. | |Dhanmondi Branch, AB Bank Ltd. |Mina Bazar, Dhanmondi | |Kakrail Branch, AB Bank Ltd. |Principal Branch, AB Bank Ltd. | |Principal Branch, Mercantile Bank |Janata Bhaban, Janata Bank | |Federation Branch, IFIC Bank |Shantinagar Branch, IFIC Bank | |Jiban Bima Bhaban, The City Bank Ltd. Dhanmondi, IFIC Bank | |Chittagong | |Agrabad Branch, AB Bank Ltd. |CDA Avenu e, AB Bank Ltd. | 3. 2 About ITC ITC or Information Technology Consultants Limited works as the server or as an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or the host in the shared ATM network. ITC is the company which brought the Q-cash system first in Bangladesh . It is a sister concern of Envoy Group. Originally it was introduced by a foreign organization named â€Å"Gemplus†. They are providing the smart card, ATMs and all the technical and management supports of the Q-cash consortium. . 3 Network system of q-cash All the locations of these ten banks and POS centres that have Q-cash are joined together by two kinds of networking relationship. These networking functions are performed for withdrawals of cash from the account, to get account information, pay the utility bills and transactions through POS. These two types of networking relationship are 1) Offline relationship and 2) Online relationship Offline relationship with Q-cash system is used for POS and the utility bill paying a nd the online relationship with the system is used for withdrawal of cash and other activities concerning the users account. . 3. 1 Offline relationship An offline relationship is the part of the networking system were the transactions are not connected to the server of the ATM host. This offline relationship can be found on the POS system. POS means Point Of Sales. In this system a Q-cash cardholder can buy products from the shops, which is connected with the host computer. Using their q-cash card the user will pay his bills by inserting his card in a small machine. The machine is capable of reading the memory chip in the card. As the account information of the user is already in the card the machine can authenticate the user and the amount of money the user has on his account. This entire process has no connection with the server or with the bank of the user. 3. 3. 2 online relationship Online relationship is the part of the network that is done completely by online with the help of the ATM host. The host processor may be owned by a bank or financial institution, or an independent service provider may own it. All the controlling branches of the banks have an online relationship with the host. Host connects the ATMs of different locations with the banks of the network. To maintain the connections between the ATMs Banks and POS the host uses different types of communication media. Most host processors can support either leased-line or dial-up machines. Leased-line machines connect directly to the host processor through a four-wire, point-to-point, dedicated telephone line. Dial-up ATMs connect to the host processor through a normal phone line using a modem and a toll-free number, or through an Internet service provider using a local access number dialled by modem. Leased-line ATMs are preferred for very high-volume locations because of their thru-put capability, and dial-up ATMs are preferred for retail merchant locations where cost is a greater factor than thru-put. DDN technology is a new one in modern online banking. It is a kind of digital connection, which performs better than the leased line connections. Usually these sorts of connections relate the host and the ATMs. The most effective feature of DDN is to transfer data at a higher speed than that of leased lines or the Dial-up lines. This is how ATM networks become available to the cardholder (the person wanting the cash). [pic] . 3. 2. 1 Techniques of the online relationship followed by ITC In online connection the members of the Q-cash consortium is connected with ITC (host) by simple dialup connection. They connect the host processor or the ITC through a normal phone line using a modem and a toll-free number. ITC is connected with the ATMs and POS terminals of different places all o ver the country by leased line, DDL, Satellite connection, Radio link, Dial-up connection. These various types of communication facilities are used because the telecommunication infrastructure of Bangladesh is very weak. So if one system is collapsed the other will work. But mainly the DDL is used for communicate with the ATMs (provided by Bangladesh Tar and Telephone Board), Dial-up connection is used for to communicate with POS terminals and the banks, satellite for overseas connection with banks and radio link for remote places. When a user of a bank inserts his ATM card in the ATM and enters his PIN the ATM directly connects with the host ITC for authentication. In the authentication process the host (ITC) checks the security pin and performs the other security checking’s. If the user of the card is authorised host connects the ATM with the users bank server. In the process, the server of the bank checks the account and adjusts the balance. This is called authorization. The server of the bank performs the action by using a system called core-banking software. If a server of bank does not have the core banking software, they inform ITC the numerical position of the account of all their Q-cash cardholders via dial-up connection. Thus ITC always gets the numerical information on the account position of the customers of the bank. In this case the host (ITC) does the work of both authentication and authorization. 3. 3. 2. 2 Automated clearing house (ACH) ACH is short for automated clearing house. This bank terminology means that a person or business is authorizing another person or business to draft on an account. When a cardholder wants to do an ATM transaction via POS, he or she provides the necessary information by means of the card reader and keypad. The card reader forwards this information to ITC via Dial-up connection. Which routes the transaction request to the cardholders bank that issued the card. If the cardholder is requesting to pay, the host (ITC) processor causes electronic funds transfer to take place from the customers bank account to the host processors account. The processor then ACHs the cardholders funds into the merchants bank account. In this way, the merchant is reimbursed for all funds dispensed by the ATM. An independent ATM host can access any bank. It also supports a large number of ATMs placed with different merchants. So when the user authorises to pay the cash, the money moves electronically from users account to the hosts account to the merchants account. [pic] [pic] [pic] 3. 4 Security Q-cash is fully secured. The main concept of the security process of Q-cash system is any cardholder can only carry out transaction on Q-cash ATMs with a Personal Identification Number (PIN) . If a person loses his card others cannot use it that because transactions cannot be done without the PIN. The Q-cash smart card is a PIN protected card with DES, 3DES function to ensure security. DES is an encryption algorithm used to protect sensitive data – in this case the PIN. The DES algorithm uses a 56-bit key length; 3DES specifies three rounds of encryption, effectively increasing the key length to 168 bits. Q-cash smart card is also EMV compatible. 3. 5 Future prospects of Q-cash Since it is made with hybrid technology, it can read or write any kind of data. So, in the near future it can be used as voter id, club, insurance, driving or even national identity card. More updated security system is getting included in the card, so the user will have more security. New features of banking are getting included in it and the users will get the latest banking feature by using it. 4. 0 Conclusion Q-Cash service is getting popular day by day in our country. More banks are getting themselves included in the network. All the cards will be converted into smart card till 2006 and we are getting it in right now. It has the potential to be utilized in a greater aspect. So, it has given a new dimension in the banking sector in Bangladesh. Appendix Definition of terms There are some unfamiliar terms that were not described in the discussion. So, the definitions of terms are given below alphabetically. ATM (Automated Teller Machine) – the machine that provides the users to deposit or to withdrawal money. ACH (Automated clearing house) a centralized and computerized system for setting indebtedness between members. BTTB(Bangladesh Tar and Telephone Board) It is a government service for nationwide telecommunication. Card reader – a device of ATM machine that gathers the account information stored on the magnetic stripe on the back of a Q-Cash card. CRT (cathode ray tube) – the most common type of monitor used in the office and home is CRT. CRT is similar in size and technology to television. Credit card – a car through which a person can buy things on credit. DDN (digital data network) – a digital data network provided by in order to connect to the ISP host. Dispenser – the path trough which cash is dispensed from ATM. ISP (internet service provider) – the organization that provides Internet service. Keypad – the input device by which the cardholder tells the ATM the nature, the amount of the transaction and the pin. LCD (liquid crystal display) – LCD monitor use the technology that involves liquid crystals. It is much thinner then CRTs. Modem The device that helps the user to connect his computer to some sorts of networking system. Offline relationship – all the branches of any of the ten banks that manually connect with their card issuing branch. Online relationship all the branches of any of the ten banks that connect with their card issuing branch by a host processor to work in online. Pin – the secret code to access into the account of a cardholder to perform account related functions. Receipt printer The device that provide a cardholder with a paper receipt of the transaction. Server – the part of Internet system that stores information files that are used to display pages of information. Speaker – the device provides the cardholder auditory feedback when a key is pressed. Sensor – a device of ATM that evaluates the thickness of each bill. Bibliography Interviews Md. Wajid Ahmed Project leader (Q-Cash EMV) IT Consultants Limited Md. Faizul Islam System Engineer Q-cash Processing System IT Consultants Limited Interview on September 4, 2004 Newspaper articles The Daily star â€Å"Local private it firm plans shared ATMs for Bangladesh† April 25, 2001 Prothom Alo â€Å"It consultant is providing different kind of ATMs for banks† April 25, 2001 Dainik Jugantor â€Å"24 hour Q-Cash card is getting started† July 14, 2002 Websites http://www. itclbd. com http://www. howstuffworks. com http://www. thecitybank. com http://www. pubalibangla. com http://www. mutualtrustbank. com http://www. mblbd. com http://www. janatabank-bd. com http://www. abbankonline. com http://www. ebl-bd. com http://www. ificbankbd. com http://www. nccbank-bd. com http://www. jamunabankbd. com